Our body made up of cells which is the smallest unit. There are different types of cells which function differently according to the need of the body. Every living thing on earth has to die and for continuing to live needs energy. Energy to do work and reproduce. Cells also require the energy to reproduce by dividing itself. Division process is very controlled and normal. When cells grow abnormally and in uncontrollable be manner hence it leads to cancer. Cancer may occur anywhere in the body, so here we will discuss cancer and its different types.
There are mainly five types of cancer which are as follows:
Central nervous system cancers
Brain and spinal cord are part of the central nervous system. Cancer of the CNS originates in the brain or spinal cord. Exposure to radiation to the head and genetic factors may increase the chances of someone developing brain cancer in the future.
Out of 100, 3 cases are of the brain and spinal cord cancer in the UK.
Diagnosis of cancer includes imaging (X-ray, MRI or CT scan) and biopsy. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are some treatments for brain cancer.
Blood cancer occurs when blood cells behave abnormally. They may grow out of control. There are 3 main types of blood cancer: leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.
In leukemia, an abnormal number of immature white blood cells get clog up in bone marrow. Consequently, the formation of other blood cells stops which is vital for a balanced immune system and healthy blood.
Lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that affects lymphatic system. Immune system which is an important part of the lymphatic system helps to protect the body from infection and disease.
Signs and symptoms of lymphoma may include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, drenching sweats, weight loss, itching, and constantly feeling tired.
Myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells. Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell that helps fight infection by producing antibodies. In myeloma, large numbers of abnormal plasma are made and multiply in the bone marrow abnormally. It leads the formation of tumors that accumulate in different parts of the body, especially in the bone marrow and on the surfaces of different bones in the body.
Bone pain, anemia, frequent or repeated infections and slow healing, very low platelet count are common symptoms.
It is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Our lungs are present in the chest. In malignant lung cancer cells grows in an uncontrollable manner. This growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body.
Cause of lung cancer is due to long-term tobacco smoking. The risk of lung cancer increases with the length of time and number of cigarettes.
Blood in cough (small amount), shortness of breath, chest pain, wheezing and bone pain are common symptoms of lung cancer.
Melanoma or skin cancer
Skin cancer typically occurs in the skin except in the mouth, intestines, or eye. The primary cause of melanoma is ultraviolet light (UV) exposure in those with low levels of skin pigment.
Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. Globally, in 2012, it newly occurred in 232,000 people. In 2015 there were 3.1 million with the active disease which resulted in 59,800 deaths.
Breast cancer develops in breast tissue. Signs of these may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin.
Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical exercise, taking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all, older age, and family history.
Colorectal cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon or rectum), which is the final part of the digestive tract. Signs and symptoms may include blood in the stool, persistent abdominal discomforts, such as cramps, gas or pain, a change in bowel movements, and weight loss.
Most colorectal cancers are relevant to old age and lifestyle factors. Some other risk factors are diet, obesity, smoking, and genetic disorder.
Prostrate is a gland in male reproductive system. Development of cancer in the prostate is a slow growing process. These cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes.
Initially, it shows no symptoms. But in later stages, it can lead to difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, or pain in the pelvis, back or when urinating.